Physical, Technical and Computer Sciences Institute of Yuriy Fedcovich Chernivtsi National University

Department of Thermoelectricity

History of the department

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"Applied Physics" as a specialty of higher education is a system of study, research and educative activities aimed at forming specialists, namely, physicists for research and development for solving urgent problems of applied physics production processes , physics of devices of elements and systems, new materials and enginery manufacturing; for industry, agriculture, power engineering, transport and telecommunications.

Apart from in-depth knowledge in physics, this specialty provides young professionals with both skills and knowledge to create the physical equipment, facilities and technology, whose working principles and design are based on the latest achievements in physics.

Since 1999, following the request of the President of the NAS of Ukraine Boris Paton, training of specialists in applied physics is conducted in Chernivtsi National University in the specialty “Physical basis of power engineering” of the thermoelectric profile.

The demand for such specialists is forced by the need of staffing and development of physical researches and scientific and technical developments in the field of thermoelectricity in Ukraine and in the region. Thermoelectricity is a progressing, priority scientific and technical direction, based on the researches in thermoelectric energy conversion and its use in creation of sources of electric energy, cooling devices and measuring equipment.

The region has the world-famous School on Thermoelectricity formed by an academician of NAS of Ukraine L.I. Anatychuk. School was formed back in the 1960s in Chernivtsi State University. The school saw its significant development in the 70s through the establishment of the Department of thermoelectricity and the problem laboratory, where the foundation was laid of the modern theory of thermoelectricity based on the law of thermoelectric currents induction, which was first formulated in L.I. Anatychuk’s doctoral thesis. This approach made it possible to invent a new class of thermocouples, patented in leading countries and find meaningful ways of their practical applications. For their realization, the Research and Design Bureau “Phonon” was opened in 1980 in Chernivtsi with pilot production. In this way a scientific, educational and industrial complex of thermoelectricity was completed. Activities of the said complex has provided a broad introduction of thermoelectricity into defense and space technologies, electronics, metrology, instrumentation technology, power engineering, medicine, household appliances, and more. Research developed vigorously as well.

Considering these achievements, on the base of “Phonon” and the laboratory the Institute of Thermoelectricity NAS and MES of Ukraine was established. The Institute conducts comprehensive fundamental and applied research in physics of thermoelectricity, thermoelectric materials, technology of thermoelectric materials and devices, computer technology, design and fabrication of thermoelectric devices. Near 400 products for different purposes have been produced by now. About 50 doctors and candidates of sciences have been trained and are working now at the ITE; a lot of young people join the school on thermoelectricity, the specialized scientific council for doctoral and master's theses has been working and a core journal published.

On the initiative of the Institute the International Thermoelectric Academy (MTA) was opened in 1994, which is registered in the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine. The Academy includes leading scientists from all over the world. In this way national science priorities in thermoelectricity were confirmed at the international level and those of the Department and Institute of Thermoelectricity.

Lukyan Ivanovich Anatychuk has been Head of Thermoelectricity Department, Director of the Institute of Thermoelectricity of the NAS and MES of Ukraine since their foundation. He has also been President of the International Thermoelectric Academy, a member of the International Thermoelectric Society and the Japanese Society for functionally graded materials, Honorary Academician of the International Academy of Refrigeration. Under his leadership, based on the generalized Maxwell equations the newest theory of thermoelectricity was created, new areas of development and practical applications found; the theory of reliability and energy and informational theory of thermoelectric devices were also created, the novel thermoelectric materials developed together with the computer-aided design of thermoelectric materials, devices and systems and   high- temperature thermoelectric devices technology.

In accordance with the resolution No. 5-13/154 of the MES Board and NAS Presidium of 07/31/02 on the integration of education and science in Ukraine, Thermoelectricity Department works closely with the Institute of Thermoelectricity in training and research. Leading specialists of the Institute of Thermoelectricity are involved in lectures, practical and laboratory work, management course and qualification work at the Department of Thermoelectricity.

Within the educational process, the Institute of Thermoelectricity provides lectures, special laboratories, resources for laboratory work, visual aids and multimedia computer systems as well as the specialists. The total area of the rooms provided is over 200 m2. The Institute of Thermoelectricity serves as a basis for all kinds of practice to the students majoring in "Applied Physics" of Chernivtsi National University. The Institute of Thermoelectricity provides students and researchers of Chernivtsi National University with free access to the specialized library of A.H. Samoylovych Institute of Thermoelectricity funds, those containing over 20 000 patents and 10 000 volumes of specialized literature on thermoelectricity. Students are involved in this professional work in the Institute of Thermoelectricity as laboratory technicians.

Graduates of the Thermoelectricity Department are provided with work at the Institute, which is ready to take about 20 graduates annually. For this purpose between the Institute of Thermoelectricity and students of the "Applied Physics" major direct contracts are concluded for work at the Institute of Thermoelectricity during training and employment after graduation.

The department functions as a day department only. On the government order 20 to 25 applicants are accepted every year. The department monitors postgraduate and doctoral studies.

The Department has been conducting scientific work on “The development and application of thermoelectric energy-saving and renewable heat and power sources“.

During this period considerable experimental and computational research results have been received. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric properties of layered anisotropic materials and models of thermoconverters for energy saving and renewable heat and electricity sources has been completed. Integrated thermoelectric parameters and characteristics of anisotropic layered semiconductor structures have been defined. Interconnection between integral parameters and material parameters of layers has been established. We have found two mechanisms of anisotropic diffusion of impurity atoms in single crystals of cadmium antimonide, namely a node-node one and a vacancy one, as well as the reasons for changing the dominant role of these mechanisms. For medium temperature PbTe based thermoelectric materials it has been found that the optimum doping impurities, including doubly ionized, increases thermal performance of these materials. The method has been developed and calculations made for characteristic frequencies and vibrations in crystals of cadmium and zinc antimonides that are of interest as components of new composite thermoelectric materials. The values of the characteristic frequency are consistent with the pattern of structure-property relationships, confirmed by research on stratification in molten binary compounds near the melting point and give a quantitative criterion for assessing the nature of chemical bonding in the crystals under study. Such information allowed us establishing the relationship of the microscopic characteristics of the macroscopic properties of these materials. For high-temperature thermoelectric materials - solid solutions of germanium-silicon modeling of film analogues and finite ordered structures revealed the decisive influence of biaxial strain on the reconstruction of physical properties. Due to the small energy of formation, ordered zinc-blende structure has a significant probability of manifestation in obtaining bulk anisotropic structures of Si (1 -x) Ge (x). A computer program for analyzing energy interband transitions with the use of the pseudopotential method in the virtual crystal approximation has been developed. Based on the known experimental values of the interband component of energy transitions, the analytical appearance of their pseudopotential functions has been created. The program considers various factors, including alloy effects. The study of physical models of semiconductor thermoconverters ultra-high frequency (UHF), intended to operate in the range from 0.3 to 3000 GHz that corresponds to wavelengths of 0.1-1000 mm.

The Department cooperates with many Ukrainian and foreign research institutions. Scientific achievements of the Department of thermoelectricity are constantly being introduced into the learning process. This is reflected in the programs of courses , "Physical principles of energy conversion", "Physicochemical energy conversion technology", "Computer-aided design of power converters", "Applied Materials", "Applied Electrophysics", "Microscopic theory of the phenomena of energy conversion”, "Thermoelectric materials" ," Computer design of heat pumps", “Computer-aided design of energy systems", "Computer design of information systems", "Physical Electronics including quantum "and others.